L-citrulline

L-citrulline is a type of amino acid that non-proteinogenic amino acid and exists as a free amino acid. L-citrulline is one of the constituents of the urea cycle that converts ammonia, which is harmful in vivo, into urea. In the 1980s, knowledges on nitric oxide (NO) production via L-arginine by ingestion of L-citrulline were found. L-citrulline (mg/100g) has been reported to be present in foods such as watermelon (180), hay (57), melon (50), winter watermelon (18), and cucumber (9.6) (Hayashi, kagakutoseibutsu 46 (2008)). In recent years, L- citrulline has been used as a supplement for physiological activity that it has been reported fatigue (Bendahan et al., Br J Sports Med. 36 (2002)), exercise performance (Perez-Guisado et al., J Strength Cond Res. 24 (2010)), swelling (Morita et al, Jpn Pharmacol Ther 40 (2012)) and so on. The following reports on the safety of L-citrulline are available. In a non-clinical study, rats were exposed to repeated doses of L-citrulline at 2,000 mg/kg/ days for 6 weeks. The results of this study indicate that no adverse events were observed at doses of L-citrulline 2,000 mg/kg/ days (Morita et al., Fund Toxico. Pharm. 67 (2017)). In human safety studies, 8 healthy adults on single-dose studies at doses of 2, 5, 10, and 15 g/day of L-citrulline. The results of this study indicate that no adverse events were observed at doses up to 15 g/day of L-citrulline (Moinard et al., Brit. J. Nutri.99 (2008)). A 4-week repeat dose study of L-citrulline at a 6g daily dose was also conducted in 17 healthy adult males. The results of this study indicate that no adverse events were observed at the dose of L-citrulline 6g per day (Figueroa et al., Amer. J. Hyper.23 (2009)).

・Oral L-citrulline supplementation and blood pressure

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