Since lysine is an essential amino acid that cannot be synthesized in the human body, its degradation is irreversible.
Lysine is produced as a white crystalline powder by fermentation of carbohydrate sources and is odorless but has a slight bitter taste.
In addition, it is easily water soluble but hardly soluble in alcohol.

In the pharmaceutical field, lysine (usually in the form of the monohydrochloride) is used as an essential amino acid preparation and as a therapeutic ingredient for herpes simplex (Griffith, 1987).

In agriculture-related industries, lysine is an essential ingredient in livestock feed, especially for pigs and chickens.

As a human nutrient, lysine is recognized as the first limiting amino acid in cereals as a staple food, and is lacking in the poor in developing regions (Scrimshaw, 1973).
In ethnically and culturally diverse groups with a poor diet of lysine, it has been documented that lysine enhancement significantly improves protein quality and subsequently promotes child growth (Pellet & Ghosh, 2004; Hussain, 2004; Zhao, 2004). Recent research suggests that the need for lysine and other essential amino acids is increasing in the disease state of acute infections (Kurpad, 2003, Smriga, 2004).
According to a recent study of people in western Africa, dietary lysine supplementation has been able to reduce the incidence of childhood diarrhea and human respiratory disease (Ghosh, 2010).
An ICAAS member company is actively conducting research and development in western Africa based on the above clinical data (Figure).

There are few records showing the side effects of lysine intake on the upper limit of intake in human diets (6th ICAAS Workshop on Evaluation of Appropriate Dietary Amino Acid Intake).
In the United States, the main lysine intake from food was 5.3 grams per person per day.
In clinical trials, there are multiple clinical trials that reported no side effects after an additional dose of about 3-6 grams of free lysine per day.

Ingestion of lysine with dietary supplements is often in the form of hydrochloride.
Large amounts of chloride can induce hyperchloric acidosis, which is harmful for patients with renal failure who cannot handle acid overload, and subgroups must consider chloride intake not.
However, according to the literature currently available, there are no reports of hazards clearly identified as being due to excessive intake of lysine from the diet, and the limit value of metabolism sets the allowable upper limit intake (if necessary) It suggests that it can be the only approach. This approach is in parallel with the approach in the FAO / WHO Nutrient Risk Assessment Workshop, which proposes the use of an upper limit intake concept for endogenous substances with no known side effects.

1.Ghosh, S., Smriga, S., Vuvor, S., Suri, D., Mohammed, H., Armah, S., Scrimshaw, N. S. (2010). Am J Clin Nutrition, 92, 928-939.
2.Griffith, R. S., Walsh, D. E., Myrmel, K. H., Thompson, R.W., Behforooz, A. (1987). Dermatologica,175, 183-190.
3.Hussain, T., Abbas, S., Khan, M. A., Scrimshaw, N. S. (2004). Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 25(2):114-22.
4.Kurpad, A. V., Regan, M. M., Raj, T., Vasudevan, J., Kuriyan, R., Gnanou, J. (2003). Am J Clin Nutrition, 77, 101-108.
5.Pellett, P.L., Ghosh, S. (2004). Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 25, 7.
6.Scrimshaw, N. S., Taylor, Y., Young, V. R. (1973). Am J Clin Nutrition, 26, 965-972.
7.Smriga, M., Ghosh, S., Mouneimne, Y., Pellett, P. L., Scrimshaw, N. S. (2004). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 8285-8288.
8.The 6th Workshop on the Assessment of Adequate Intake of Dietary Amino Acids (2007). J. Nutrition, 137, Supplement.
9.Zhao, W., Zhai, F., Zhang, D., An, Y., Liu, Y., He, Y., Scrimshaw, N. (2004). Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 25, 123-129.

・Lysine and herpes recurrence
・Lysine as the 1st Limiting amino acid in cereals
・Effects of lysine supplementation on the health and morbidity of patients in poor households around Accra (Ghana)


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